In the sport of running, there are medium and long distance running specialties, from 10,000 m to the marathon and beyond.
Running is an activity with a high energy expenditure, between 700 (marathon) and 950 (10,000 meters) kcal / h, and water.
In this sport, technique and training probably affect performance more significantly than proper nutrition.
It should be noted, however, that if a good diet does not improve performance so much, certainly a bad diet worsens it.
It is very important to achieve optimal body weight, restore energy supplies in the best possible way, ensure good muscular plastic efficiency, optimal immune defenses and, finally, maintain good cellular hydration and concentration of mineral salts.
To recharge the body and improve performance, you need to drink a lot and regularly, even on days when you don't train.
Endurance training, especially if carried out in the summer season, involve intense sweating, with consequent loss of fluids and mineral salts. These losses must absolutely be integrated to keep the muscles responsive.
"The loss of 1 liter of water leads to an increase of 8 beats per minute and an increase in the internal temperature of 0.3 ° C"
Running is classified as an aerobic sport, i.e. without significant accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles, at medium-high work intensity. It is in fact oxygen that determines the production of energy (ATP) to perform the exercise starting from the breakdown of sugars, fats and even proteins. A good level of training is able to determine adaptation mechanisms, which allow the muscles to make the most of their energy reserves.
Proper nutrition is essential for the runner to compensate for the significant increase in energy-plastic requirements, and to maintain optimal muscle efficiency.
For endurance athletes, who consume a high number of calories at each workout (500-700 calories / hour), carbohydrates and fats from the basic diet are the main energy resource.
Carbohydrates contained in starchy foods (e.g. pasta, rice, potatoes, cereals, etc ...) with gradual release and simpler sugars (e.g. glucose and fructose contained in honey, fruit ...) are deposited in the liver and muscles in the form of glycogen, an essential energy reserve for making any type of effort.
The food carbohydrates to be preferred are the complex ones of pasta, rice and whole grains; simple sugars, contained in particular in sweets, should be avoided as much as possible.
Complex sugars stabilize blood sugar and increase the amount of muscle glycogen, therefore the availability of energy during exercise.
The role of fats and proteins must be carefully considered in the runner's diet.
Fats play an important role from an energy point of view, in particular the short-chain ones contained in oils and oily fruits, are rapidly used by the muscle during exercise, at medium intensity.
Furthermore, a correct intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic and Omega 3 is essential, to keep the cardiovascular system in good health and protect the osteoarticular system, particularly stressed in the runner, often a victim of chronic inflammatory processes.
Proteins, although little involved in energy, should not be underestimated. They are essential for maintaining and increasing muscle mass (plastic role), they maintain the efficiency of the immune, endocrine, nervous and digestive systems.
Animal proteins have a better nutritional value than vegetable ones because they contain a greater quantity of essential amino acids, including branched ones.
For this reason, they nourish muscle tissue more specifically than vegetable ones (from legumes, soy, pea).
Among the amino acids is the availability of the "branched" to play a key role in the repair and recovery of injured tissues. In competitive running, the estimated protein requirement is between 1.3-1.5 g protein / kg of body weight.
The intake of 3 servings per day of dietary protein or in the form of a supplement, well distributed between breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks, guarantee optimal training capacity.
The excess consumption of carbohydrates and fats, which in general produce a feeling of well-being for the athlete, during and after training or performance, are often the main culprits of overweight.
Good nutrition is able to optimally restore muscle glycogen stores.
If you take carbohydrates immediately before a race, over a short distance (up to 15 km) you will only block the release of glycogen, which is not actually compensated by the increase in circulating glucose. For short races the runner already has all the energy he needs, he just has to use it.
A diet that is too low in protein (less than 15%) makes muscle reconstruction difficult after exertion.
It is not true that limiting fats is enough to lose weight; moreover, limiting fats means using carbohydrates as a priority source of energy, which are wasted even for low-intensity activities. The fat percentage should not drop below 20%.
You can find the Carbohydrates Line and all Syform products in Pharmacy, Parapharmacy, in Specialized Stores and also online.